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1 (Originally spelled: Jonathan Trumble, was changed for an unknown reason) was one of the few Americans who served as governor in both a pre-Revolutionary colony and a post-Revolutionary state. During the American Revolution he was the only colonial governor who supported the American side.

Trumbull College at Yale is named for him, as is the town of Trumbull, Connecticut, just north of Stratford and Bridgeport. Trumbull County, Ohio, once part of the Connecticut Western Reserve, is also named for him. The mascot of Connecticut's flagship university, The University of Connecticut, is named "Jonathan" in his honor. 
TRUMBULL, Jonathan Sr. (I25320)
 
2 Children's birth and death dates from personal journal of William Wilson
Sterrett. 
HARRIS, William Fredrick (I262)
 
3 "A maiden of surpassing beauty" says Diodorus OF GREEK MYTHOLOGY, Tyro (I3674)
 
4 "A Surety for the Magna Charta", appointed 15-19 June 1215. Lord of Belvoir Castle. Top of the Skipwith line. DE ALBINI, Sir William Lord of Belvoir Castle (I54827)
 
5 "Bone-setter" at Sugar Loaf Hill, South Kingstown, Rhode Island. SWEET, Jonathan (I20598)
 
6 "Bone-setter" at Sugar Loaf Hill, South Kingstown, Rhode Island. SWEET, William (I20608)
 
7 "Bone-setter" in Hartford, Conn. SWEET, Charles (I20597)
 
8 * Last king of Troy
* Note:
Priam was the king of Troy during its famous destruction. Priam was a direct descendant of Dardanus, son of Zeus, and became the king of Troy through natural succession. He married Hecabe and they started a family of their own. (1) Priam and his many children played crucial roles in the Trojan War. One of his sons in particular, Paris, was considered by many to be responsible for beginning the war. He was called upon to judge between the beauty of three goddesses - Athena, Aphrodite and Hera. (2) (3) Athena wins by promising Paris the love of the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen, who at the time was married to the Greek king Menelaus. Athena causes them to fall madly in love (4) and together they leave Sparta. (5) (6) Menelaus, the husband that Helen left behind, gathered together Greek troops and pursued the couple across the Aegean Sea to the city of Troy in order to reclaim his wife. (7) So began the Trojan War.

Genealogical data compiled by Eugene W. Stark. All rights reserved. Copyright © 1995-1997 Priam, in Greek mythology, King of Troy, father of Trojan warrior Hector. Too old to fight in the Trojan War, Priam anxiously watched from the walls of Troy. After his son Hector was slain by Greek hero Achilles, Priam went to the Greek camp to beg for his body. Achilles gave him Hector's body for burial, but during the sack of Troy, Priam was killed.
 
KING OF TROY (AND THE ILIAD), Priam (I3349)
 
9 1851 Census, Richard age 29, Mary age 28
1871 Census, Richard age 49, Mary age 48

Both records indicate Richard's birthplace as Lytchett Minster 
FOOT, Richard (I1230)
 
10 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. BLACK, Kim Janine (I1350)
 
11 4th Mayor of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. FISHER, John (I58461)
 
12 A "Daughter of The Revolution". GORTON, Adah Carolyn (I35956)
 
13 A bishop of the Episcopal Church of the United States. He was the seventh Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of New York. POTTER, Henry Codman (I23210)
 
14 A Boston physician, scientist, and a military surgeon with the British Army in Nova Scotia and New York during the American Revolution. Born in Boston, Jeffries graduated from Harvard College and obtained his medical degree at the University of Aberdeen. He is best known for accompanying Jean-Pierre Blanchard on his 1785 balloon flight across the English Channel. Dr. Jeffries also played a large role in the trial for the Boston Massacre as a witness for the defense. He was the surgeon for Patrick Carr, who was one of the Americans shot during that incident.

Jeffries is also credited with being among America's first weather observers. He began taking daily weather measurements in 1774 in Boston, as well as taking weather observations in a balloon over London in 1784. National Weatherperson's Day is celebrated in his honor on February 5, his birthday. 
JEFFRIES, Dr. John (I53521)
 
15 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE GREENE FAMILY

The GREENE family was a branch of the de la Zouche family of whom Gibbon, the historian, said that they had the most royal blood and the most strain of royal blood in all Europe. The Greene's at one time were the largest land owners in all England. They were over fifty times descent of Charlemagne (known as 'Charles the Great, King of the Franks and Emperor of the West'), the greatest man of a thousand years.

There were a dozen decents from Alfred the Great and fifty from Wittekind. They had the blood of Irish, Scotch, Saxon, English, and Bohemian Kings; they came from ancient Parthian Emperors long before the time of our Lord Jesus Christ; regular heathens; Russian rulers; French Kings; Constantine the Great; and Basil the Great, the Byzantine Emperor.

Through the Royal Welsh line, they claimed a double infusion of Jewish blood -- one line from Aaron, the first High Priest; the other from King David himself. Queen Victoria of the same blood firmly believed this. A dozen titular saints, a dozen signers of the Magna Charta, and over thirty crusaders were in this descent.

Alexander, a younger son of the de la Zouche family, was given an estate and title as a "Great Baron" by King John of England in 1202 AD. The estate was that of Grene de Boketon. Walter de Boketon, was in the Seventh Crusade in 1244. Walter's son, John Grene de Boketon, died in the next crusade in 1271 leaving a year old son, Thomas, who became Sir Thomas de Grene (married Alice Bottisham). Then came Sir Thomas de Grene (b: c1288) who married Lady Lucy de la Zouche, his relative.

Wittekind's line of descent is as follows:
Wittekind -- the German hero whom Charlemagne conquered and converted to Christianity, and married Princess Geva.
Robert the Strong -- the grandson of Wittekind and Geva. He married Adelaide le Debonnaire, the daughter of Emperor Louis le Debonnaire and granddaughter of Charlemagne.
Hugh -- the King maker of France.
Hugh Capet (his son).
King Robert I.
King Henry I of France -- and through their wives from Emperors of Germany, Czars of Russia, Emperors of Byzantine, the early Saxon Kings and William the Conqueror.
Then eight generations more with the Royal Welsh, Spanish, Irish, and Scotch heirs in their veins to Lady Lucy de la Zouche (b: c1279) who married her relative Sir Thomas de Grene (b: c1288).

They remained in the royal line for several hundred years. Saher de Quincey, Earl of Winchester, and one of the Magna Charta Barons, wrested the Great Charter from King John on the field of Runnymede in June of 1215.

Today's name "Greene" was originally written "de Grene", "de Grean" (sometimes transcribed as "atte Gream") or "Grene" and changed again to simply "Greene" and in America changed again to mostly "Green". It appears that the Greene's assumed their name from an allusion to their principal and beloved manor which was Boketon (now Greene's Norton), in the County of Northampton, England. The place was known for the excellency of its soil, its situation, and its spacious and delightful green. From Buckton, they assumed three bucks for their coat of arms. They were Lords of the Manor and owned many stately castles.

In King Edward the III's reign (1327-1377), Sir Henry Greene (1310-1370) obtained for himself and his heirs the grand of a fair to be held yearly for three days beginning on the vigil of St. John the Baptist. Since that time down to the middle of the nineteenth century this fair was held up on the spacious green which gave name to the Greene family.

In the reign of Henry V (1413-1422), Sir Thomas Greene was warden of Whittlebury Forest, an office which he "held in capite of the King by service of lifting up his hand towards the King yearly on Christmas Day in what place so-ever the King is."

Sir Henry de Greene was the Lord Chief Justice of England, and the ancestor of six Sir Thomas' who succeeded one another on the estate of Northampton without interruption. The last one died in 1506 leaving a daughter, Mathilda or Maude Greene, who married Sir Thomas Parr. Katherine Parr, the daughter of this Sir Thomas Parr and Mathilda or Maude Greene, was the sixth and last Queen of Henry VIII (1509-1547). At her death the estate passed to the Crown, but was restored to the Greene's in 1550 by a grant from Edward VI (1547-1553) who gave it to his uncle, Katherine Parr's brother, Sir Thomas Parr. This Sir Thomas Parr was a Knight of the Garter.

Robert Greene, Gentleman of Bowridge Hill, Gillingham, County of Dorset, England, was taxed on the subsidy rolls of Henry VIII in 1547 and those of Queen Elizabeth in 1558. (REF: papers from Mrs. William B. Smith (30) of DeCatur, Georgia, as given in "A Family Genealogy" by William Henry Beck, III).

The family name of Greene is derived, says Somerby, from possessions held in Northamptonshire as early as the times of King Edward I. In 1320 Sir Thomas de Greene, Lord of Broughton (or Boughton), and Norton, later called "Greene's Norton", succeeded to the estate. His son, Sir Henry de Greene, Lord of Greene's Norton, was Lord Chief Justice in 1353. The tomb of the latter which remains perfect, is ornamented with many shields showing different houses with with he was connected, and conspicuous among them is the coat of arms of his own family.

The mother of Sir Thomas de Greene (Lady Lucy de la Zouche), was a direct descendant of Henry I of France; of Saher (or Saer) de Quincey, Earl of Winchester, one of the twenty-five barons who extorted the Magna Charta from King John; and also of Alfred the Great of England. (REF: "Americans of Royal Descent" by Charles Browning). 
DE GREENE, Lord Alexander De Boketon (I1810)
 
16 A British admiral born in Newport, Rhode Island, British North America. BRENTON, Sir Jahleel 1st Baronet (I59733)
 
17 A British lawyer and politician. He was three times Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. COPLEY, John Singleton 1st Baron Lyndhurst (I53902)
 
18 A Captain in the Civil War. GREENE, Stephen (I19018)
 
19 A Captain with the 11th Regiment, Civil War. GORTON, Thomas Wickes Jr. (I14372)
 
20 A career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. MCCOOK, General Alexander McDowell (I58271)
 
21 A career United States Army officer who rose to the rank of Major General during the American Civil War.

He fought in the Second Seminole War under William J. Worth from 1837-1842. During the Mexican-American War he fought at the Battle of Contreras and Battle of Churubusco, and was brevetted major on August 20, 1847 for gallant conduct. He then fought in the Battle of Molino del Rey and was severely wounded during the Battle of Chapultepec on September 13, 1847.

After the Mexican-American war he performed frontier duties and escorted topographical parties, including a trip to California around Cape Horn in 1849. He commanded at Camp Picket during the Pig War on San Juan Island from August 10 to October 18, 1859.

He was promoted to brigadier general shortly after arriving on the East Coast in 1861. During the American Civil War he fought in the Peninsula Campaign, where his division suffered heavy losses at Battle of Seven Pines on May 31, 1862, facing George Pickett’s brigade. 
CASEY, General Silas (I23766)
 
22 A cavalry sergeant in the Civil War, Jefferson was wounded at Mt. Jackson, VA in 1864, captured and kept in Libby Prison hospital for 6 months until exchanged. GORTON, Jefferson (I19926)
 
23 A civil engineer and a Union general during the American Civil War. He was part of the Greene family of Rhode Island, which had a distinguished military record for the United States. His greatest contribution during the war was his defense of the Union right flank at Culp's Hill during the Battle of Gettysburg. As a civilian, he was a founder of the American Society of Civil Engineers and Architects and was responsible for numerous railroads and aqueduct construction projects in the northeastern United States.

Born in Apponaug, Rhode Island, one of nine children of Caleb and Sarah Robinson Wicks Greene. His family had roots in the founding of Rhode Island and in the American Revolutionary War, including General Nathanael Greene, George's second cousin. Caleb was a financially shrewd ship owner and merchant, but the Embargo Act of 1807, which prohibited U.S. vessels from carrying goods to other countries, and the War of 1812 left his family in financial difficulties. Young George attended Wrentham Academy and then a Latin grammar school in Providence and hoped to attend Brown University there, but his impoverished father could not afford it, so he moved to New York City and found work in a dry goods store on Pearl Street.

In the New York store, Greene met major Sylvanus Thayer, superintendent of the United States Military Academy, who recommended him to the Secretary of War for appointment to the academy. Greene entered West Point at age 18 and graduated second of 35 cadets in the class of 1823. (Classmates of Greene's included future Union Adjutant General Lorenzo Thomas, Joseph K. Mansfield, David Hunter, Dennis Hart Mahan, and Albert Sidney Johnston.) Top graduates of the academy generally chose the Engineers as their branch, but Greene decided on the artillery and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery regiment. However, due to his excellent academic performance, he stayed at the academy until 1827 as an assistant professor of mathematics and as a principal assistant professor of engineering. One of the students he taught during this period was Cadet Robert E. Lee.

In the summer of 1828 Greene married Mary Elizabeth Vinton, sister of his best friend at West Point, David Vinton. Elizabeth gave birth to three children over the next four years: Mary Vinton, George Sears, and Francis Vinton Greene. While assigned to Fort Sullivan in Maine in 1833, tragedy struck Greene's family: Elizabeth and all three of their children died within seven months, probably from tuberculosis. To ease the pain on his mind and to escape the isolation and loneliness of peacetime Army garrison duty, he immersed himself in study of both the law and medicine, coming close to professional certification in both by the time he resigned his commission in 1836 to become a civil engineer.

Greene built railroads in six states and designed municipal sewage and water systems for Washington, D.C., Detroit, and several other cities. In New York City, he designed the Croton Aqueduct reservoir in Central Park and the enlarged High Bridge over the Harlem River. He was one of twelve founders in New York City of the American Society of Civil Engineers and Architects. While on a trip to Maine for railroad surveying, he met Martha Barrett Dana, daughter of Samuel Dana, a prominent Massachusetts politician. They were married in Charlestown, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1837. They had six children together, including four sons who volunteered for the Union during the Civil War, one daughter, and one son who died in infancy.

The Battle of Gettysburg was the highlight of Greene's military career. On July 2, 1863, Maj. Gen. George G. Meade shifted almost the entire XII Corps from the Union right to strengthen the left flank, which was under heavy attack. Greene's lone brigade of 1,350 New Yorkers (five regiments) was left to defend a one-half-mile line on Culp's Hill when an entire Confederate division attacked. Fortunately, Greene had previously demonstrated good sense (as befits a civil engineer) by insisting that his troops construct strong field fortifications, despite a lack of interest in doing so from his division commander, Geary, and corps commander, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum. In Greene's finest moment of the war, his preparations proved decisive and his brigade held off multiple attacks for hours. He was active the entire engagement rallying his men to defend their positions in the darkness. Brig. Gen. Alpheus Williams, acting corps commander on July 2, commended Greene for his "skill and judgment" in this defense, especially in his using the "advantages" of his position. Late at night, the rest of the XII Corps returned to Culp's Hill. The fighting resumed the next morning and raged for over seven hours, but the Union troops held Culp's Hill. They regained some of the lost ground and thwarted renewed Confederate attacks. The battle for Culp's Hill included the two oldest generals in each army, Greene at 62 and Brig. Gen. William "Extra Billy" Smith at 65.

The desperate fighting on the Union right flank was as important as the more famous defense of the Union left flank on July 2, by Col. Strong Vincent's brigade on Little Round Top. In fact, given that the Union line was only 400 yards from the vital Union supply line on the Baltimore Pike, it can be argued that it was more important. However, Greene's contribution to this critical battle have never been widely heralded, principally because of a dispute between Meade and Slocum over the filing of their official reports. But a member of Greene's brigade wrote:

Had the breastworks not been built, and had there only been the thin line of our unprotected brigade, that line must have been swept away like leaves before the wind, by the oncoming of so heavy a mass of troops, and the [Baltimore] pike would have been reached by the enemy. 
GREENE, Major General George Sears (I17084)
 
24 A civil engineer and railroad executive. He was the Superintendent and engineer of the Fitchburg Railroad 1843-1851 and president of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad from 1851-1865. Felton left BWBRR to become President of the Pennsylvania Steel Company. While at Pennsylvania Steel, Felton also served as a director of several railroads, including the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, the Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co., the Northern Pacific Railway, and the Ogdensburg and Lake Champlain Railroad. In 1869 he was appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant as a Commissioner to inspect Pacific Railroads.

Felton was the brother of Harvard University president Cornelius Conway Felton and attorney John B. Felton and the father of Samuel Morse Felton, Jr., who was also involved with engineering and railroading. 
FELTON, Samuel Morse (I27595)
 
25 A claimant to the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Ireland. She was de facto monarch of England for just over a week in 1553.

Executed on 12 February 1554, Lady Jane Grey's claimed rule of less than two weeks in July 1553 is the shortest rule of England in the history of the country. Popular history sometimes refers to Lady Jane as "The Nine Days' Queen" or, less commonly, as "The Nine Day Queen" owing to disagreements about the beginning of her claimed rule. Historians have taken either the day of her official proclamation as Queen (10 July) or that of her predecessor's death (6 July) as the beginning.

Lady Jane had a reputation as one of the most learned women of her day, and the historical writer Alison Weir describes her as one of "the finest female minds of the century". She is sometimes reckoned the first Queen regnant of England.

Jane, the eldest daughter of Henry Grey, Marquess of Dorset and his wife Lady Frances Brandon, was born at Bradgate Park in Leicestershire. The traditional view is that she was born around October 1537, but recent research has led to the claim that she was born earlier, on an unknown date in late 1536 or early 1537. Lady Frances was the daughter of Princess Mary, the younger sister of Henry VIII, and was thus the first cousin of Edward VI. Jane had two younger sisters, Lady Katherine Grey and Lady Mary Grey; through their mother, the three sisters were members of the House of Tudor: great-granddaughters of Henry VII and grandnieces of Henry VIII. Jane could claim descent twice from 15th century Royal consort Elizabeth Woodville; paternally through Woodville's first husband, Sir John Grey of Groby, and maternally through her second husband King Edward IV. Jane received a comprehensive education, and studied Latin, Greek and Hebrew as well as contemporary languages. Through the teachings of her tutors, she became a committed Protestant.

Jane had a difficult childhood. Even for the harsher standards of the time, Frances Brandon was an abusive, cruel, and domineering woman who felt that Jane was weak and gentle and held her under a strict disciplinary regime. Her daughter's meekness and quiet, unassuming manner irritated Frances who sought to 'harden' the child with regular beatings. Devoid of a mother's love and craving affection and understanding, Jane turned to books as solace and quickly mastered skills in the arts and languages. However, she felt that nothing she could do would please her parents. Speaking to a visitor, Cambridge scholar Roger Ascham, tutor to the Lady Elizabeth, she said:

"For when I am in the presence of either Father or Mother, whether I speak, keep silence, sit, stand or go, eat, drink, be merry or sad, be sewing, playing, dancing, or doing anything else, I must do it as it were in such weight, measure and number, even so perfectly as God made the world; or else I am so sharply taunted, so cruelly threatened, yes presently sometimes with pinches, nips and bobs and other ways ... that I think myself in hell."

In 1546, at less than 10 years old, Jane was sent to live as the ward of 35-year old Catherine Parr, then Queen Consort of England, who had married Henry VIII in 1543. At this time, young Jane became acquainted with her royal cousins, Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth. Catherine was a sensible, maternal woman who was excellent with children, and with Jane she was no exception. It is probable that Jane's days as Catherine's ward were the happiest of her short life.

After Henry VIII died, Catherine Parr married Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley. Unfortunately, Catherine died shortly after the birth of her only child, Mary Seymour, in late 1548, leaving the young Jane once again bereft of a maternal figure. Jane acted as chief mourner at Catherine's funeral.

Thomas Seymour proposed marrying Jane to the newly-crowned Edward VI of England, but Thomas' brother, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, who ruled as Lord Protector, had already arranged a match for the king with Princess Elisabeth of France, the daughter of Henry II of France.

With two conflicting goals, the Seymour brothers engaged in a power struggle. However, primarily due to the ill health of the young king, the marriage between Edward and Jane never took place. The Seymour brothers were eventually both tried for treason and executed after a coup by the ambitious John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland.

Jane was next contracted in marriage to Lord Hertford, the eldest son of the late Duke of Somerset. However, ongoing negotiations between her mother, Frances Brandon, and Northumberland led to a proposed marriage to Lord Guilford Dudley, son of the newly powerful Duke. Jane considered Guilford Dudley an arrogant bully, and had stated her preference for a single life, but her mother made her submit to the arrangement. The couple were married, at Durham House, in a double wedding with Jane's sister Catherine and Lord Herbert, son of Lord Pembroke, on 21 May 1553.

According to male primogeniture, the Suffolks — the Brandons and, later, the Greys — comprised the junior branch of the heirs of Henry VII. The Third Succession Act restored both Mary and Elizabeth to the line of succession, although the law continued to regard both of them as illegitimate. Furthermore, this Act authorized Henry VIII to alter the succession by his will. Henry's last will reinforced the succession of his three surviving children, then declared that, should none of his three children leave heirs, the throne would pass to heirs of his younger sister, Mary Tudor, who included Jane. Henry's will excluded the descendants of his elder sister Margaret Tudor, owing in part to Henry's desire to keep the English throne out of the hands of the Scots monarchs, and in part to a previous Act of Parliament of 1431 barring foreign-born persons, including royalty, from inheriting property in England.

At the time of Edward's death, the crown would pass to Mary and her male (not female) heirs. Should Mary die without male issue, the crown would then pass to Elizabeth and her male heirs. Should Elizabeth die without male issue, the crown would pass not to Frances Brandon, but rather to any male children she might have produced by that time. In the absence of male children born to Frances, the crown would pass to any male children Jane might have.

When Edward VI lay dying in 1553 at age 15, his Catholic half-sister Mary was still the heiress presumptive to the throne. However, Edward named the (Protestant) heirs of his father's sister, Mary Tudor as his successors in a will composed on his deathbed, perhaps under the persuasion of Northumberland. Both Edward and Northumberland knew that this effectively left the throne to Edward's cousin Jane Grey, who (like them) staunchly supported Protestantism.

This may have contravened customary testatory law because Edward had not reached the legal testatory age of 21. More importantly, many contemporary legal theorists believed the monarch could not contravene an Act of Parliament, even in matters of the succession; Jane's claim to the throne therefore remained obviously weak. Other historians believed that the King could basically rule through divine right. Henry VII had, after all, seized the throne from Richard III on the battlefield.

Edward VI died on 6 July 1553. Four days later, Northumberland had Lady Jane Grey proclaimed Queen of England on 10 July 1553 - once she had taken up a secure residence in the Tower of London (English monarchs customarily resided in the Tower from the time of accession until their coronation). Jane refused to name her husband Dudley as king by letters patent and deferred to Parliament. She offered to make him Duke of Clarence instead.

A Genoese merchant, Baptista Spinola, who witnessed Jane's stately procession by water from Syon House to the Tower of London, describes her in these words, "This Jane is very short and thin, but prettily shaped and graceful. She has small features, and a well-made nose, the mouth flexible and the lips red. The eyebrows are arched and darker than her hair which is nearly red. Her eyes are sparkling, and reddish brown in colour." He also noticed her freckled skin, and sharp, white teeth. On the day of her procession she wore a green velvet gown stamped in gold.

Northumberland faced a number of key tasks in order to consolidate his power after Edward's death. Most importantly, he had to isolate and, ideally, capture Lady Mary in order to prevent her from gathering support around her. Mary, however, learned of his intentions and took flight, sequestering herself in Framlingham Castle in Suffolk.

Within only nine days, Mary had managed to find sufficient support to ride into London in a triumphal procession on 19 July. Parliament declared Mary the rightful Queen, and denounced and revoked Jane's proclamation as having been coerced. Mary imprisoned Jane and her husband in the Gentleman Gaoler's apartments at the Tower of London, although their lives were initially spared. The Duke of Northumberland was executed on 21 August 1553.

Jane and Lord Guilford Dudley were both charged with high treason, together with two of Dudley's brothers. Their trial, by a special commission, took place on 13 November 1553, at the Guildhall in the City of London. The commission was chaired by Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London, and included Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby and John Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Bath. The two principal defendants were found guilty and sentenced to death. Jane's sentence was that she "be burned alive [the traditional English punishment for treason committed by women] on Tower Hill or beheaded as the Queen pleases." However, the imperial ambassador reported to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, that her life was to be spared.

The Protestant rebellion of Thomas Wyatt the younger in late January 1554 sealed Jane's fate, although she had nothing to do with it directly. Wyatt's rebellion started as a popular revolt, precipitated by the imminent marriage of Mary to the Roman Catholic Prince Philip (later King of Spain from 1556 to 1598). Jane's father (the Duke of Suffolk) and other nobles joined the rebellion, calling for Jane's restoration as Queen. Philip and his councillors pressed Mary to execute Jane to put an end to any future focus for unrest. Five days after Wyatt's arrest, the execution of Jane and Guilford took place.

On the morning of 12 February 1554, the authorities took Guilford from his rooms at the Tower of London to the public execution place at Tower Hill and there had him beheaded. A horse and cart brought his remains back to the Tower of London, past the rooms where Jane remained as a prisoner. Jane was then taken out to Tower Green, inside the Tower of London, and beheaded in private. With few exceptions, only royalty were offered the privilege of a private execution; Jane's execution was conducted in private on the orders of Queen Mary, as a gesture of respect for her cousin.

According to the account of her execution given in the anonymous Chronicle of Queen Jane and of Two Years of Queen Mary, which formed the basis for Raphael Holinshed's depiction, Guilford faced the block first, and from her lodgings at Partridge's house, Jane viewed his body being removed from the Tower Green. Upon ascending the scaffold, she gave a speech to the assembled crowd:

Good people, I am come hither to die, and by a law I am condemned to the same. The fact, indeed, against the Queen's highness was unlawful, and the consenting thereunto by me: but touching the procurement and desire thereof by me or on my behalf, I do wash my hands thereof in innocency, before God, and the face of you, good Christian people, this day.

She then recited Psalm 51 (Have mercy upon me, O God) in English, and handed her gloves and handkerchief to her maid. John Feckenham, a Roman Catholic chaplain sent by Mary who had failed to convert Jane, stayed with her during the execution. The executioner asked her forgiveness, and she gave it. She pleaded the axeman, "I pray you dispatch me quickly". Referring to her head, she asked, "Will you take it off before I lay me down?" and the axeman answered, "No, madam". She then blindfolded herself. Jane had resolved to go to her death with dignity, but once blindfolded, failing to find the block with her hands, began to panic and cried, "What shall I do? Where is it?" An unknown hand, possibly Feckenham's, then helped her find her way and retain her dignity at the end. With her head on the block, Jane spoke the last words of Jesus as recounted by Luke: "Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit!" She was then beheaded.

"The traitor-heroine of the Reformation", as historian Albert Pollard called her, was merely 16 or 17 years old at the time of her execution. Apparently, Frances Brandon made no attempt, pleading or otherwise, to save her daughter's life; Jane's father already awaited execution for his part in the Wyatt rebellion. Jane and Guilford are buried in the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula on the north side of Tower Green. Queen Mary lived for only four years after she ordered the death of her cousin.

Henry, Duke of Suffolk, Jane's father, was executed a week after Jane, on 19 February 1554. Merely three weeks after her husband's death and not even a month since her daughter's, Frances Brandon shocked the English court by marrying Master of the Horse and chamberlain, Adrian Stokes. Some historians believe she deliberately chose to do this to distance herself from her previous status. She was fully pardoned by Mary and allowed to live at Court with her two surviving daughters. She is not known to have mentioned Jane ever again and was seemingly as indifferent to her child in death as she had been in life. 
GRAY, Lady Jane Queen of England (I8705)
 
26 A clergyman, Bible translator and commentator, and the first English Protestant martyr under Mary I of England.

On January 28 and January 29, he came before the commission appointed by Cardinal Pole, and was sentenced to death by Gardiner for heretically denying the Christian character of the Church of Rome and the real presence in the sacrament. He awaited and met death cheerfully, though he was even denied a meeting with his wife. He was burned at the stake on February 4, 1555 at Smithfield. Noailles, the French ambassador, speaks of the support given to Rogers by the greatest part of the people: "even his children assisted at it, comforting him in such a manner that it seemed as if he had been led to a wedding." 
ROGERS, Rev. John (I53744)
 
27 A Colonel in the Revolutionary War. SEYMOUR, Colonel Horace (I15579)
 
28 A colonial American woman who settled in Rhode Island, and is known as "the mother of governors." Being widowed three times, she had a total of four husbands, and became the ancestor of as many as 14 governors, deputy governors, or their wives. LATHAM, Frances (I31891)
 
29 A colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Dudley was the chief founder of Newtowne, later Cambridge, Massachusetts, and built the town's first home. He provided land and funds to establish the Roxbury Latin School, and signed the charter creating Harvard College during his 1650 term as governor. Dudley was a devout Puritan who was opposed to religious views not conforming with his. In this he was more rigid than other early Massachusetts leaders like John Winthrop, but less confrontational than John Endecott. DUDLEY, Thomas (I56137)
 
30 A colonial President, Deputy Governor, and Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and an early settler of Portsmouth and Newport in the Rhode Island colony.

-- MERGED NOTE ------------

A colonial Governor of Rhode Island and early settler of Newport, Rhode Island.

Brenton born in Britain in the early 17th century. The Brentons were a wealthy and connected family during the reign of Charles I and were from Hammersmith, England. Upon removing to New England, William Brenton served as a representative in Boston. He later served as Lieutenant Governor of Rhode Island and president of the colony between 1660 and 1661, and governor under the charter from Charles II from 1666 to 1669. Brenton was originally granted based upon the acres he surveyed, and therefore received large tracts of land. Brenton surveyed and planned much of Newport and built a large house near the site of modern day Fort Adams. Brenton eventually became a Quaker. Brenton died in Newport, Rhode Island in 1674. Brenton's Point and Brenton's Reef are named after him. 
BRENTON, Governor William (I53693)
 
31 A cousin of Daniel Webster. BOHONON, Dorcas (I13356)
 
32 A Crusader. DE QUINCY, Robert Earl of Winchester (I16733)
 
33 A delegate to the United States Congress from Wisconsin Territory from 1845 to 1847. MARTIN, Honorable Morgan Lewis (I54073)
 
34 A dentist. CROZIER, Dr. John Espey (I22636)
 
35 A deputy governor and governor (1727-1732) of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. JENCKES, Governor Joseph (I53123)
 
36 A deputy governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. He sailed from England with his father, also named James Barker, who died during the voyage. BARKER, James (I13222)
 
37 A descendant of George Soule of the "Mayflower." SOULE, Sarah (I11306)
 
38 A descendant of the early Gortons of Gorton and of Aspull, taxed 12d in 1524 on goods valued at 40s. His wife's name is unknown. GORTON, Thomas of Aspull (I1094)
 
39 A descendant of the Folgers, J.A. Folger, founded Folgers Coffee in the 19th century. FOLGER, Peter (I13785)
 
40 A descendant of the Huguenot refugee, Pierre Le Valle. LEVALLY, John (I52303)
 
41 A descendant of William Williams, singer of the Declaration of Independence. TILDEN, Clara Amelia (I25515)
 
42 A descendent of Henry II, King of England. ALMY, Anne (I1753)
 
43 A distinguished clergyman who had his education at Queen's College, Cambridge. He held posts as vicar of several important churches and was the author of numerous treatises on natural history and astrology. MAPLETT, Rev. John (I1132)
 
44 A distinguished physician of Boston. He was an ophthalmic surgeon and co-founded the Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary. JEFFRIES, Dr. John (I53503)
 
45 A distinguished physician. GORTON, Samuel IV (I712)
 
46 A fairly well known author in the 1940's. (Dorothy Langley was her pen name.) David O'Selznick (Gone with the Wind) at one point bought the rights to Dorothy's novel 'Dark Medallion'. RICHARDSON, Dorothy Selma (I51822)
 
47 A falconer for King Charles I. LATHAM, Lewis (I34780)
 
48 A famed Presbyterian minister, inventor, educational pioneer, and long-term president of Union College, Schenectady, New York. NOTT, Rev. Eliphalet (I28807)
 
49 A famous artist. GILLESPIE, Hugh M. (I14574)
 
50 A Federalist-party United States senator representing the state of Rhode Island. He served in the senate from 1817 until 1820. He graduated from the College of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (the former name of Brown University) at Providence in 1788.

The town of Burrillville, Rhode Island, is named for him. 
BURRILL, Senator James Jr. (I27116)
 

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